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4th World Congress on Medical Imaging and Clinical Research, will be organized around the theme “Fostering Treatment Through Integrative Approaches of Imaging Techniques and Clinical Research”
MEDICAL IMAGING 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in MEDICAL IMAGING 2018
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Medical imaging aims in process of visual representations of the interior of a body and function of some organs or tissues (physiology) for medical intervention and Clinical analysis. It reveals internal structures hidden by the skin and bones, helps to diagnose and treat the diseases. It is a type of biological imaging and incorporates radiology which uses several imaging technologies of X ray Medical Imaging, nuclear medical imaging techniques such as PET (Positron emission tomography) and SPECT (Single-photon emission computed tomography), Ultrasonography, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Optical Imaging, elastography etc. It helps in detecting and diagnosing many diseases such as Cardiovascular disease, Cancer, Neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease) and in drug development via small animal imaging with micro PET or micro SPECT, micro MRI, micro CT, fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging systems. There is a wide range of research and development in area of modeling, instrumentation, quantification and image acquisition are usually the preserve of medical, medical physics, computer science and biomedical engineering.
- Thoracic Imaging
- Molecular imaging
- Breast Imaging
- Musculoskeletal Imaging
- Clinical Imaging
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- Nuclear Medical Imaging
- Optical Imaging
- X ray Medical Imaging
Radiography is an Imaging Technique using electromagnetic radiation to view the interior parts of the body. An image is created when a beam of X-rays is produced by an X-ray generator in the form of electromagnetic radiation is projected on the object. Radiography applications include Medical radiography and Industrial radiography. Medical radiography means the object that is being examined is living. The rest other radiography is regarded as industrial radiographic work or industrial computed tomography. There are over 10,000 hospitals worldwide that uses radioisotopes in medicine. The most common radioisotope used in medicine in diagnosis is technetium-99 with some 40-45 million procedures per year accounting for about 80% of all procedures used in diagnosis worldwide. Radiology Imaging is one of the best techniques in medical imaging which has a peak position on advanced imaging techniques. The process of medical images is usually carried out by the radiographer, often known as a Radiologic Technologist.
· Projection radiography
· Interventional radiology
· Computed tomography
Nuclear medicine is a medical Imaging that uses radioactive tracers or radiopharmaceuticals to assess functions of body and to diagnose and treat the disease. Specially designed cameras and a computer to create images of the inside of body, allow doctors to track the path of these radioactive tracers.
The two most common imaging modalities in nuclear medicine are:
· Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
SPECT scan provide 3D images of the distribution of radioactive tracer molecules that have been introduced into the patient’s body whereas PET scans also use radiopharmaceuticals to create 3D images. The main difference between PET and SPECT scans is the type of radiotracers used.
Radiation oncology is a branch of oncology that involves the controlled utilization of radiation to diagnose cancer and other symptoms caused by cancer. Radiation therapy is the word used to describe the actual treatment delivered by the radiation oncologists. They require precise imaging of internal anatomy so that it is well adapted to the tumour and organs at risk. Indeed, morphological imaging such as computed tomography is already recommended for radiotherapy planning. But radiation oncologists are also considering other imaging modalities for treatment planning and imaging tools capable of controlling patient motion during treatment. Imaging play an important role during treatment planning and delivery of radiation therapy via techniques such as: 4D computed tomography, morphological and functional MRI, positron emission tomography, and imaging devices mounted on accelerators.
Pediatric (Paediatric) radiology is a section of radiology involving the full body imaging of newborn, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Adolescents are introduced to pediatric radiologists since developing bodies are more liable to the adverse effects of radiation than are grown person of equivalent size.
Mainly used Pediatric Imaging Techniques:
· Pediatric X-rays
· Pediatric body CT scans with low-dose adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction
· Pediatric body MRI scans
· Pediatric fluoroscopy for assessment of swallowing, diaphragm, gastrointestinal tract and urinary tract.
· Fluoroscopic-guided nasogastric and feeding tube placements
· Pediatric ultrasound-guided biopsy and Doppler imaging
· Pediatric pneumatic intussusception reduction
· Pediatric CT and MR angiography, urography and enterography
· Pediatric percutaneous cecostomy tube exchanges
Neuroradiology is a section of radiology focusing on the imaging peripheral and central nervous system (spine and the brain) and the head and neck. Imaging modalities used in neuroradiology include Computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diagnostic angiography, ultrasound and myelography. Interventional neuroradiology is an evolving specialty for minimally-invasive percutaneous and endovascular treatment of brain, neck and spine diseases. Pediatric Neuroradiology is devoted to the neuroimaging of the pediatrics or children.
Molecular Imaging originated from the field of radiopharmacology and can be broadly defined as the in vivo characterization and measurement of biologic processes at the cellular and molecular level inside organisms. Molecular Imaging potentialities are applicable to the diagnosis of diseases such as neurological, cardiovascular and cancer diseases. This imaging technique uses biomarkers to help image particular targets or pathways. Its ability to image fine molecular changes opens a wide range of exciting possibilities for various medical applications. The important veins of research are gene expression imaging and novel biomarkers development.
Abdominal Imaging is a specialty of Diagnostic Radiology, providing diagnostic imaging and intervention of abdominal and pelvic disorders. This specialization provides extensive clinical experience for optimal patient care and interactions with medical and surgical subspecialties. Mainly used imaging modalities for abdominal imaging are X-Ray, Ultrasound (US), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Nuclear Medicine Techniques, and Fluoroscopy.
Cardiovascular imaging techniques include echo-cardiogram, coronary catheterization, intravascular ultrasound, Cardiac CT angiography, Cardiac PET scan and Cardiac MRI. An Echocardiogram is a test that uses high frequency sound waves to make images of your heart’s chambers, valves, walls and the blood vessels (aorta, arteries and veins) attached to your heart. Coronary catheterization is a minimally invasive process to access the coronary circulation of heart using a catheter. It is performed for both diagnostic and interventional purposes. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is also known as a percutaneous echocardiogram, is a medical imaging methodology using specially designed, long, thin, complex manufactured catheters attached to computerized ultrasound equipment to visualize the lumen and the interior wall of blood vessels.
Dental Imaging is used to produce three dimensional images of teeth, nerve pathways, soft tissues and bone in a single scan. Compared to intraoral images, panoramic imaging is a quick approach to acquire an image of the whole dentition. This sort of imaging has a relatively low radiation trouble for the patient considering the anatomy it covers in single exposure. A panoramic image gives you an overview of the patient’s oral health. Dental cone beam computed tomography is a special type of X-ray equipment, which is used when regular facial or dental x-rays are not sufficient. Dentists use dental imaging for many reasons; to find hidden dental structures, benign or malignant masses, bone loss, and cavities.
Pathology imaging mainly aims to digital imaging in anatomic pathology to diagnose and improve the patients’ health. This will enable greater access for Pathologists to know more about the scanners for real time viewing of the image and the précised image will improve the clinical and medical imaging, reproducibility and research productivities. Digital optical imaging will have a significant and progressive impact on the future development of anatomic pathology. Computer technology advances will continue to bring new innovations to departments of pathology imaging.
Ophthalmic imaging is a highly specialized form of medical imaging which creates detailed images to support the diagnosis and treatment of a range of eye conditions. It covers a wide range of scope of photographic services that incorporates many aspects of commercial and medical photography. Ophthalmic photography can be done through the use of highly specialized equipment used to document parts of the eye like the cornea, iris, and retina. Images passing through the clear structures of the cornea and lens are focused there to give us our view of the world. Special instruments called fundus cameras, when used by skilled photographers, can document the condition of this miraculous anatomical structure. It allows the clinician to record the findings from clinical ocular examination in an objective, reproducible, transmissible and durable manner.
Gastrointestinal tract imaging is very useful for research and clinical studies of patients with symptoms of gastrointestinal tract and in visualizing anatomy and pathology. Advances in non-invasive imaging modalities including ultrasound (US), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) etc, have revolutionized the way in which the gastrointestinal tract diseases are diagnosed. The resolution of imaging data is constantly being improved and 3D acquisition, tools for filtering, enhancement, segmentation and tissue classification are continually being developed.
In Computer - Assisted Tomography, a computer process the data received from radiation and constructs an image computationally and this technique is widely used as compared to conventional tomography because it can readily image both hard and soft tissues while conventional tomography is poor at imaging soft tissues. CT also called as X-ray computed tomography or computerized axial tomography (CAT scan) makes use of the computer processed combinations of X-ray images that are taken from different angles to produce tomographic images that can be manipulated to demonstrate various bodily structures that is based on their ability to block the X-ray beam. It has become an important tool in medical imaging to supplement medical ultrasonography and X-rays.
The Medical Imaging has a wide variety of applications which is helping the patients to know the early emerging diseases like tumor and cancer. Various technologies are introduced to diagnose the diseases and form the images of internal aspect of the body such as Mammographic imaging, Breast Imaging, Cardiovascular Imaging, Abdominal Imaging, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Thoracic Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nuclear Medical Imaging, Ultrasonography, Optical Imaging, X ray Medical Imaging, Elastography etc.
The field of medical imaging has grown tremendously due to the improvement in technologies and the advancement in digital and communication technologies. We can discuss vascular imaging with ultrasound, high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax, magnetic resonance imaging applications, and picture archiving and communication systems. Its ability to faster imaging yield better information and the imaging technologies helps in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases such as lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, heart diseases and so on.
Advances in Cancer Imaging:
Cancer which is the abnormal growth of cells has the potential to spread to other parts of the body. The researchers are developing new therapies and with the help of imaging technologies, it is developing a way to restrict the growth of cells. Medical imaging aims in the management of patients with cancer. It has become an important element not only to detect the early cancer but it also helps in determining the stage of cancer.
HIV/AIDS: clinical trials are research concentrates done to discover better approaches to avoid, recognize, or treat HIV/AIDS. Cases of HIV/AIDS clinical trials incorporate investigations of new HIV prescriptions, investigations of antibodies to counteract or treat HIV, and investigations of solutions to treat diseases identified with HIV. Clinical research is the speediest approach to figure out whether new medicinal ways to deal with HIV/AIDS are sheltered and powerful in individuals. The advantages and conceivable dangers of taking an interest in a HIV/AIDS clinical trial are disclosed to study volunteers before they choose whether to take an interest in a review.
Clinical trials participation can be an extremely important part of basic health care for all groups. Many investigators have stated engaging a more representative population in research is important to research applicability as well as minority population. Minority patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have often received care below the medical standards. HIV-positive African Americans were significantly less likely than whites to be started on antiretroviral therapy or to have received care below the medical standards. Despite the clear impact of race on disease management and outcomes, minority participation in clinical trials evaluating new treatment for well-known diseases such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and HIV have continued to be at low levels.
Clinical Trials for different diseases and disorders are conducted for evaluating one or more interventions for treating a disease, syndrome, or condition and also finding ways to prevent the initial development or recurrence of a disease or condition. These can include medicines, vaccines, or lifestyle changes, among other approaches. Some examples of the diseases/disorders for which clinical trials conducting are Cardiovascular, Digestive system, Respiratory system diseases and other parasitic, viral, bacterial and fungal diseases. And Clinical Trials on behaviors, mental, sleep and eating disorders.
Pre-clinical research also named preclinical studies and nonclinical studies is a stage of research that begins before clinical trials, and during which important feasibility, iterative testing and drug safety data is collected. More than 600 clinical research centers are there worldwide, and approximately 1500 universities in which pre-clinical and clinical researches are going on. Clinical research funded by government grants like National Science Foundation, the National Institutes of Health, etc., companies doing research and development, and non-profit foundations like the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.
The future of clinical trials illustrated as follows. Access and engage the patient online – Attract patients to the trial – Consent patients & convert to subjects – Remotely manage subjects and collect data. The sponsor plans to engage the patient through social media such as Facebook, and regular e-mail updates in order to attract the patient to the trial, and once the patient agrees to learn more about the trial, the sponsor mails the patient a package containing mobile health devices, which collect medical diagnostic data and sends that data to the sponsor. The patient turns on the tablet, which contains an electronic consent and a video of a physician explaining the clinical trial in detail. Humanization in digital media is believed to be an effective tool that is used to communicate with patients. During the clinical trial, the subject is able to access live physicians either virtually or through nearby medical community centers. Remote nurses visit the subject at their homes to collect samples. In addition, the patient uses the mobile health device to automatically upload study data directly to the sponsor's EDC database.
Clinical data management is the process of collection, cleaning, integration and management of subject data in compliance with regulatory standards. It is a critical phase in clinical research, which leads to generation of high-quality, reliable, and statistically sound data from clinical trials, this has been facilitated by the use of software applications that maintain an audit trail and provide easy identification and resolution of data discrepancies. CDM also supports the conduct, management and analysis of studies across the spectrum of clinical research. The ultimate goal of CDM is to assure that data support conclusions drawn from research. Achieving this goal protects public health and confidence in marketed therapeutics.
The conduct of clinical trials is one of the most expensive aspects of the development of new medicinal products. It is important, therefore, that the studies should produce high-quality data in the shortest possible time. More companies are trying to use single, larger, complicated trials in an attempt to gain the greatest amount of information about a product and thus reduce the lead time to market. A key element in ensuring this goal is the close cooperation between those responsible for the provision of the clinical trial supplies. The provision of clinical trial supplies is usually organized by a special group, often within the product development department, and it is prudent to discuss a proposed trial with this group at an early stage so that any potential difficulties can be identified and resolved.
The major steps in clinical trial supplies are 1) Placing an order for clinical trial supplies 2) Manufacturing of clinical trial supplies 3) Blinding of clinical trial supplies 4) Obtaining comparators 5) Packaging 6) Labeling 7) Documentation 8) Expiry dating 9) Dispatch of supplies 10) Disposal of clinical trial supplies.
A case report on Cardiology gives an appropriate convention for all cardiologists by rendering their important clinical cases of late occurrence. Studying from medical cases provides valuable experience for clinicians, students and paramedical staff -members. Rare medical reports and conditions discovered through the latest methods of examination are energized. Moreover, studying diagnostic methods from medical cases and the interpretation of symptoms is significant to train and burgeon the thought processes which are being used in the clinical field.
· Cardiac rehabilitation
· Regenerative cardiac biology research
· Clinical problems involving the heart and vascular system
· Proteomic analysis of heart disease
· Stem cell analysis of heart disease
The Discipline of Clinical Dental Research has experiencing changes in extension, strategies, instrumentation and innovation which is driven by expanded familiarity with quality medicinal services in creating nations and progressed biotechnological accessibility in created world. It incorporates increment use of PC innovation in analytic science, atomic techniques, and clinical estimations, which thusly will influence clinical basic leadership with expanded exactness.
The adjustments in example of oral malady have additionally expanded the extent of clinical research with move in center of research to investigate obscure etiological element and etiopathogenesis. Subsequently the general pattern is towards the expanded request of prepared and experienced clinical agent in dentistry.
An expansion in subsidizing for clinical research is definitely on the grounds that examination financing if utilized as a part of fitting bearing will decrease huge social insurance cost for the administration and enhanced personal satisfaction for the patient. Additionally there is extent of enhancing general wellbeing of patients as well, if extension is done on oral wellbeing research.
This examination incorporates clinical trials looking at treatment of dental maladies; item quality and working, for example that required for biomaterials in orthodontics, periodontics, endodontics and pedodontics; oral cleanliness materials and techniques; considers concentrating on nature of human services. Behavioral science considers in clinical dental research, to inspect issues, for example, quiet adequacy of dental treatment as well as preventive technique with wellbeing advancement. Concentrate on control of major etiological component like plaque control and tobacco de-enslavement by suitable behavioral strategies are under real extent of clinical dental research.
Clinical Research on brain diseases, as on any disease affecting humans, often proceeds from taking promising results produced in studying an animal model of a disease and applying these results to the first studies in human patients who have that disease. These first studies in patients usually determine whether the animal model has accurately portrayed what is actually occurring in the human disease, and whether the intervention works safely in patients. This first research in humans also tries to determine whether these interventions, which appeared to work in the animal model of the disease, also show promise in treating patients who have the disease.
· Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and related techniques
· Colonoscopy, polypectomy, and related techniques
· Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
· Capsule endoscopy and small bowel enteroscopy
· Gastrointestinal motility procedures
· Dietary treatment of gastrointestinal disease
A case report is a means of communicating something new that has been learnt from clinical practice. It could be about an unusual or previously unknown condition, a rare presentation or complication of a known disease, or even a new approach to managing a common condition. A case report provides the detailed report of symptoms, signs, diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports may contain a demographic profile of the patient and play major role in the field of medical research and evidenced based medicine. Moreover, case reports can serve as an early warning signal for the adverse effects of new medications, or the presentations of new and emerging diseases.